of Linguistics. Noun Phrases, Verb Phrases, and Prepositional Phrases). 105 Use of English is growing country-by-country internally and for international communication. The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. Further complications have arisen through sound changes with which the orthography has not kept pace. In Kachru's three-circles model, the "outer circle" countries are countries such as the Philippines, Jamaica, India, Pakistan, Singapore, and Nigeria with a much smaller proportion of native speakers of English but much use of English as a second language for education. Today spoken primarily by working- and middle-class African Americans, African-American Vernacular English (aave) is also largely non-rhotic and likely originated among enslaved Africans and African Americans influenced primarily by the non-rhotic, non-standard older Southern dialects. There are more people who have learned it as a second language than there are native speakers. In spite of the idiomatic meaning, some grammarians, including Huddleston Pullum (2002 :274 do not consider this type of construction to form a syntactic constituent and hence refrain from using the term "phrasal verb". In 1828, Noah Webster published the American Dictionary of the English language to try to establish a norm for speaking and writing American English that was independent of the British standard. Separate from GA are American dialects with clearly distinct sound systems, historically including Southern American English, English of the coastal Northeast (famously including Eastern New England English and New York City English and African American Vernacular English, all of which are historically non-rhotic. The settlement history of the English-speaking inner circle countries outside Britain helped level dialect distinctions and produce koineised forms of English in South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand. (the idiomatic marker no way! Syntax In the English sentence The cat sat on the mat, the subject is the cat (a NP the verb is sat, and on the mat is a prepositional phrase (composed of an NP the mat, and headed by the preposition on ). Retrieved Bailey, Guy (2001). One loaf of bread, two loaves of bread. Later published as a chapter in: Bernd Kortmann and Edgar.